Rare-earth recycling: challenges and opportunities
Rare-earth element (REE) magnets are essential in defense and clean energy applications. The demand for these magnets is expected to follow the growth of the clean energy sector (EV, wind turbines). Since more than 90% of the world's REE magnet production capacity is dominated by China, which is constrained by governmental export quotas, future supply availability is uncertain. At the same time, the magnet end- of-life, industrial scrap and swarf market in US, Europe and Japan is increasing.